Niño sea surface temperature (SST) Indices are based on the average of SST anomalies across the given regions: Niño 1+2 (0-10S, 90W-80W), Niño 3 (5N-5S, 150W-90W), Niño 3.4 (5N-5S, 170W-120W) and Niño 4 (5N-5S, 160E-150W). These indices are used to monitor the conditions in the Tropical Pacific for the occurrence of El Niño or La Niña.
The sea surface temperatures (SSTs) across the tropical Pacific continued to be warmer than average in November and further strengthened which may likely have reached its peak. The strong warming was observed almost over all Niño regions. However, the SSTAs in the western Pacific and over most of the maritime continent were near to above average and below average around Indonesia.
The Indian Ocean Dipole mode Index (DMI) is defined as the difference between the SST anomalies (ºC) of Western (10ºS-10ºN & 50ºE-70ºE) and Eastern (10ºS-0ºN & 90ºE-110ºE) Equatorial Indian Ocean regions (WEST-EAST). The DMI values represent the intensity of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); DMI values above +0.4 °C is referred as the positive IOD, DMI values below −0.4 °C is referred as the negative IOD and DMI values between +0.4 °C and -0.4 °C is referred as the neutral IOD.
Strong positive IOD values were still observed during the month, as warmer than average SSTs were observed over the western equatorial Indian Ocean while the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean was cooler than average.