October 2023 SST Anom (deg C)

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October 2023 Sea Surface Temperature Assessment

A. Niño Regions

Niño sea surface temperature (SST) Indices are based on the average of SST anomalies across the given regions: Niño 1+2 (0-10S, 90W-80W), Niño 3 (5N-5S, 150W-90W), Niño 3.4 (5N-5S, 170W-120W) and Niño 4 (5N-5S, 160E-150W). These indices are used to monitor the conditions in the Tropical Pacific for the occurrence of El Niño or La Niña.

Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) across the central and eastern equatorial Pacific were consistently warmer than average in October with anomalies greater than 1.5ºC on the average. The strong warming (>2.0ºC anomaly) was still observed over the eastern equatorial Pacific. However, the SSTAs in the western Pacific and over most of the maritime continent were near to below average, particularly around Indonesia.

B. Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)

The Indian Ocean Dipole mode Index (DMI) is defined as the difference between the SST anomalies (ºC) of Western (10ºS-10ºN & 50ºE-70ºE) and Eastern (10ºS-0ºN & 90ºE-110ºE) Equatorial Indian Ocean regions (WEST-EAST). The DMI values represent the intensity of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); DMI values above +0.4 °C is referred as the positive IOD, DMI values below −0.4 °C is referred as the negative IOD and DMI values between +0.4 °C and -0.4 °C is referred as the neutral IOD.

Positive IOD levels were still observed during the month, as warmer than average SSTs were observed over the western equatorial Indian Ocean while the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean was cooler than average.

October 2023 SST (deg C)

October Normal SST(1991-2020) (deg C)