Figure 1: 1-month SPI for March 2024 (reference period, 1991-2020)

Figure 2: SSTA across the Pacific and Indian Ocean for March 2024 (reference climatology, 1991-2020, JMA-iTacs)

Climate Monitoring Node – WMO-RCC-SEA –DOST-PAGASA


Areas of Concern: Cambodia, Brunei Darussalam, most of Malaysia and the Philippines and parts of Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Viet Nam and Indonesia

Date Issued: April 2024

Area of moderate rainfall deficiencies have been observed in some parts of Southeast Asia region, particularly over Cambodia, Brunei Darussalam, most parts of Malaysia, northern and southern parts of Thailand, southern Myanmar, central and southern parts of the Philippines. Parts of Indonesia, Lao PDR and Viet Nam also recorded mild to moderate rainfall deficiencies, while the remaining parts of region received adequate rainfall for the month of March.

Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) across the tropical Pacific have started to weaken during the month, however anomalies >1.0°C are still evident in the Niño 3.4 region for March 2024. Likewise, the SST anomalies in the western Pacific and over most of the Maritime Continent were near to above average.

Positive value of IOD was observed during the month as SSTs over the western equatorial Indian Ocean is warmer than the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

A Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) signal was active through most of March, with the active phase over the Maritime Continent and Western Pacific (characterized by active convection and precipitation over some areas of the region) up to the third week of the month, followed by a weakening MJO activity towards the Western Hemisphere.

Climate Bulletin Archive