December 2023 SST Anom (deg C)

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December 2023 Sea Surface Temperature Assessment

A. Niño Regions

Niño sea surface temperature (SST) Indices are based on the average of SST anomalies across the given regions: Niño 1+2 (0-10S, 90W-80W), Niño 3 (5N-5S, 150W-90W), Niño 3.4 (5N-5S, 170W-120W) and Niño 4 (5N-5S, 160E-150W). These indices are used to monitor the conditions in the Tropical Pacific for the occurrence of El Niño or La Niña.

The warmer than average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) across the tropical Pacific prevailed during the month and continued to be strong (anomalies greater than 1.5°C) in most of the Niño regions. However, the SST anomalies in the western Pacific and over most of the maritime continent were near to above average while the southern and eastern part of Indonesia exhibited below average SST anomalies.

B. Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)

The Indian Ocean Dipole mode Index (DMI) is defined as the difference between the SST anomalies (ºC) of Western (10ºS-10ºN & 50ºE-70ºE) and Eastern (10ºS-0ºN & 90ºE-110ºE) Equatorial Indian Ocean regions (WEST-EAST). The DMI values represent the intensity of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); DMI values above +0.4 °C is referred as the positive IOD, DMI values below −0.4 °C is referred as the negative IOD and DMI values between +0.4 °C and -0.4 °C is referred as the neutral IOD.

Positive IOD levels were still observed during the month. Warmer than average SSTs were observed over the western equatorial Indian Ocean while the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean remained to be cooler than average.

December 2023 SST (deg C)

December Normal SST(1991-2020) (deg C)