March 2024 SST Anom (deg C)

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March 2024 Sea Surface Temperature Assessment

A. Niño Regions

Niño sea surface temperature (SST) Indices are based on the average of SST anomalies across the given regions: Niño 1+2 (0-10S, 90W-80W), Niño 3 (5N-5S, 150W-90W), Niño 3.4 (5N-5S, 170W-120W) and Niño 4 (5N-5S, 160E-150W). These indices are used to monitor the conditions in the Tropical Pacific for the occurrence of El Niño or La Niña.

Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) across the tropical Pacific have started to weaken during the month, however anomalies >1.0°C are still evident in the Niño 3.4 region. Likewise, the SST anomalies in the western Pacific and over most of the Maritime Continent were near to above average.

B. Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)

The Indian Ocean Dipole mode Index (DMI) is defined as the difference between the SST anomalies (ºC) of Western (10ºS-10ºN & 50ºE-70ºE) and Eastern (10ºS-0ºN & 90ºE-110ºE) Equatorial Indian Ocean regions (WEST-EAST). The DMI values represent the intensity of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); DMI values above +0.4 °C is referred as the positive IOD, DMI values below −0.4 °C is referred as the negative IOD and DMI values between +0.4 °C and -0.4 °C is referred as the neutral IOD.

Positive IOD was observed during the month as SSTs over the western equatorial Indian Ocean is warmer than the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

March 2024 SST (deg C)

March Normal SST(1991-2020) (deg C)