December 2022 SST Anom (deg C)

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December 2022 Sea Surface Temperature Assessment

A. Niño Regions

Niño sea surface temperature (SST) Indices are based on the average of SST anomalies across the given regions: Niño 1+2 (0-10S, 90W-80W), Niño 3 (5N-5S, 150W-90W), Niño 3.4 (5N-5S, 170W-120W) and Niño 4 (5N-5S, 160E-150W). These indices are used to monitor the conditions in the Tropical Pacific for the occurrence of El Niño or La Niña.

Below average sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) across the tropical Pacific Ocean were sustained during the month (-1.0ºC to -2.0ºC SST anomaly). However, most of the the western Pacific near the Maritime continent was observed to be near average to slightly warmer than average and slightly cooler than average around Indonesia.

B. Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)

The Indian Ocean Dipole mode Index (DMI) is defined as the difference between the SST anomalies (ºC) of Western (10ºS-10ºN & 50ºE-70ºE) and Eastern (10ºS-0ºN & 90ºE-110ºE) Equatorial Indian Ocean regions (WEST-EAST). The DMI values represent the intensity of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); DMI values above +0.4 °C is referred as the positive IOD, DMI values below −0.4 °C is referred as the negative IOD and DMI values between +0.4 °C and -0.4 °C is referred as the neutral IOD.

Neutral values of the IOD was observed during the month, with the western equatorial Indian Ocean showing slightly warmer than average than the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

December 2022 SST (deg C)

December Normal SST(1991-2020) (deg C)