Niño sea surface temperature (SST) Indices are based on the average of SST anomalies across the given regions: Niño 1+2 (0-10S, 90W-80W), Niño 3 (5N-5S, 150W-90W), Niño 3.4 (5N-5S, 170W-120W) and Niño 4 (5N-5S, 160E-150W). These indices are used to monitor the conditions in the Tropical Pacific for the occurrence of El Niño or La Niña.
Cooler than average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) across the central and eastern equatorial Pacific have slightly strengthened during the month (-1.0ºC to -2.0ºC), However, most of the the western Pacific near the Maritime continent was observed to be near average to slightly warmer than average.
The Indian Ocean Dipole mode Index (DMI) is defined as the difference between the SST anomalies (ºC) of Western (10ºS-10ºN & 50ºE-70ºE) and Eastern (10ºS-0ºN & 90ºE-110ºE) Equatorial Indian Ocean regions (WEST-EAST). The DMI values represent the intensity of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); DMI values above +0.4 °C is referred as the positive IOD, DMI values below −0.4 °C is referred as the negative IOD and DMI values between +0.4 °C and -0.4 °C is referred as the neutral IOD.
Negative IOD continued to persist in September. The western equatorial Indian Ocean was observed to be cooler than average, while the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean was still warmer than average.