November 2019 SST Anom (deg C)

November 2019 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Assessment

A. Niño Regions

Niño SST Indices are based on the average of SST anomalies across the given regions: Niño 1+2 (0-10S, 90W-80W), Niño 3 (5N-5S, 150W-90W), Niño 3.4 (5N-5S, 170W-120W) and Niño 4 (5N-5S, 160E-150W). These indices are used to monitor the conditions in the Tropical Pacific for the occurrence of El Niño or La Niña events.

In November, sea surface temperatures were slightly warmer to warmer than average across most of the the tropical Pacific Ocean, while a small portion of the eastern Pacific and most of the western equatorial Pacific were cooler than average. Cooler than average SSTs were particularly observed near Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, including Papua New Guinea. However, slightly warmer than average SSTs were observed near the eastern side of the Philippines and slightly cooler near the western part.

B. Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)

The Indian Ocean Dipole mode Index (DMI) is defined as the difference between the SST anomalies (ºC) of Western (10ºS-10ºN & 50ºE-70ºE) and Eastern (10ºS-0ºN & 90ºE-110ºE) Equatorial Indian Ocean regions (WEST-EAST). The DMI values represent the intensity of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); DMI values above +0.4 °C is referred as the positive IOD, DMI values below −0.4 °C is referred as the negative IOD and DMI values between +0.4 °C and -0.4 °C is referred as the neutral IOD.

Strong positive IOD were still observed in November, although it has decreased compared to the previous month. SSTs over most of the western equatorial Indian Ocean were much warmer than average while over most of the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean, SSTs were observed to be cooler than average.

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November 2019 SST (deg C)

November Normal SST (1981-2010) (deg C)