October 2019 SST Anom (deg C)

October 2019 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Assessment

A. Niño Regions

Niño SST Indices are based on the average of SST anomalies across the given regions: Niño 1+2 (0-10S, 90W-80W), Niño 3 (5N-5S, 150W-90W), Niño 3.4 (5N-5S, 170W-120W) and Niño 4 (5N-5S, 160E-150W). These indices are used to monitor the conditions in the Tropical Pacific for the occurrence of El Niño or La Niña events.

During the month, sea surface temperatures remained cooler than average in the eastern and central equatorial Pacific, while the western equatorial Pacific near the dateline were warmer than average. Cooler than average SSTs were observed near Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei and slightly warmer than average around the Philippines.

B. Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)

The Indian Ocean Dipole mode Index (DMI) is defined as the difference between the SST anomalies (ºC) of Western (10ºS-10ºN & 50ºE-70ºE) and Eastern (10ºS-0ºN & 90ºE-110ºE) Equatorial Indian Ocean regions (WEST-EAST). The DMI values represent the intensity of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); DMI values above +0.4 °C is referred as the positive IOD, DMI values below −0.4 °C is referred as the negative IOD and DMI values between +0.4 °C and -0.4 °C is referred as the neutral IOD.

Strong positive IOD were observed in October. The average SSTs over most of the western equatorial Indian Ocean were much warmer than average while the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean were much cooler than average.

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October 2019 SST (deg C)

October Normal SST (1981-2010) (deg C)